Stomach cancer is developed due to the abnormal proliferation of mucosal cells on the inside lining of the stomach (adenocarcinoma). Gastric adenocarcinoma is the most common type of stomach cancer, commonly known as "stomach cancer." Initially gastric mucosa may be due to inflammation, into atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia , after years of progress to the abnormal proliferation of cells , and finally develop to cancer, which is a series of long-term " carcinogenic " evolution. Gastric cancer ranks the forth most common cancer-related cause of mortality in Hong Kong.
Although a gradual declining trend is observed in Europe and the United States, the incidence of stomach cancer remains rather steady in Asia. Major risk factors for gastric cancer include "H. pylori" infection, precancerous lesions or genetic factors of gastric cancer.
Patients with early gastric cancer do not have associated symptoms. It shares similar symptoms with other gastric diseases (chronic gastritis , peptic ulcer, or other symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders) such as: abdominal pain, flatulence , poor appetite, melena , etc. Patients having end stage of stomach cancer may also suffer from weight loss, loss of appetite , fatigue , difficulty swallowing, persistent vomiting , massive ascites and other advanced symptoms . Gastric cancer is mainly diagnosed by Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy histopathology.